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Got hands 4 dayz bruh

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1 Got hands 4 dayz bruh on Thu Jan 21, 2016 2:31 pm

Study Chart

  • The anatomy of smell

Retina stuff:


The retina is a thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye on the inside. It is located near the optic nerve. The purpose of the retina is to receive light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send these signals on to the brain for visual recognition.

The retina processes light through a layer of photoreceptor cells. These are essentially light-sensitive cells, responsible for detecting qualities such as color and light-intensity. The retina processes the information gathered by the photoreceptor cells and sends this information to the brain via the optic nerve. Basically, the retina processes a picture from the focused light, and the brain is left to decide what the picture is.

Due to the retina's vital role in vision, damage to it can cause permanent blindness. Conditions such as retinal detachment, where the retina is abnormally detached from its usual position, can prevent the retina from receiving or processing light. This prevents the brain from receiving this information, thus leading to blindness.

STIMULI - something that incites to action or exertion or quickens action, feeling, thought, etc.:

2: Stimulus is a word often used in biology — something that causes a reaction in an organ or cell, for example.

3: a thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue.
"areas of the brain which respond to auditory stimuli

Sensory System:


The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory receptorsneural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for visionauditory (hearing), somatic sensation (touch), gustatory(taste), olfaction (smell) and vestibular (balance/movement). 




mechanoreceptors (touch and sound):



Please take a moment and notice how your fingertips sense the tabletops. Notice the different mechanisms for sensing location, roughness, table edge, table temperature. And, try to pay attention to how you use your fingers to detect certain signals, such as roughness or temperature.


One important characteristic of the sensors in your skin is referred to as the Rate of Adaptation. Most human mechanoreceptor cells respond to a change in the external stimulus (pressure, temperature, etc) by producing voltage pulses across neurons. Immediately after the change in external stimulus, these pulses begin to appear. Over some time, the pulse rate declines and eventually returns to the original passive level. The rate of adaptation is the rate at which the mechanoreceptor pulse rate returns to normal after a change in stimulus. Simply put, sensors with adaptation do not provide information about static signals - only about changing signals. To use such a sensor to sense a static quantity, like roughness, it is necessary to make the roughness produce a time-varying contact force on the tactile sensors in the fingers.
The mechanoreceptors in your skin may be separated into distinct categories:


Fast Adaptation

Pacinian Corpuscles are rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors in your skin and are often the most sensitive cells to very small changes in the stimulus, such as the tactile force. These rapidly adapting cells return to a normal rate of pulses in less than 0.1 second. These delicate mechanoreceptors are generally found in the subcutaneous layer of the skin, where they are protected from the abuses which may occur at the surface. These receptors are used in human perception to detect surface roughness as the fingertips are dragged across a surface, or very small vibrations in machines. Because of their location far below the surface and the role of the skin in transmission of signals, it is not necessary or useful to have a high areal density of these receptors. The skin acts to distribute the applied forces over relatively large areas (maybe 10x the thickness of the skin), so spacing closer than tenths of a millimeter would not add any additional sensitivity.

Moderate Adaptation

Meissner's Corpuscles and hair follicle receptors are good examples of mechanoreceptors with moderate adaptation rates. These receptors can be located near the surface of the skin, and adapt to changes on time periods of order 1 second. Some experiments with the hair on your arm should confirm these adaptation rates. Think about the sorts of things such sensors (located around hair follicles) would be useful for in an outdoor setting. If you've been camping recently, you might recall that these sensors are the ones you use most effectively to detect insects on your skin (mosquitoes, ticks, flies, etc). Since these insects are a threat to human survival at some level, evolving a capability to detect and remove such insects would be of obvious value.

Slow Adaptation

Ruffini Endings, Merkel's Cells, and Tactile Disks are examples of slow adapting mechanoreceptors. These receptors are generally located near the surface of the skin, and are responsible for much of the static perceptive capabilities. For example, the sensitivity to temperature at the skin is generally of a slow-adapting type, as are many tactile sensors useful for maintaining grip on an object. The adaptation time scale for these cells can be from 10 to more than 100 seconds. Experiment with grasping of an object in the air, like a pencil or a cup of coffee. Close your eyes and think about how it is that you overcome the adaptation in these sensors to avoid dropping objects.
In fact, it is interesting to give some thought to the whole process of grasping objects in the air. You have all developed a set of skills for holding drinks in your hand with a minimum of effort. Think about how often you mistakenly crush the coffee cup in your hand, or about how often the cup slips completely through your fingers. Aside from falling asleep, these events are extremely rare. However, the task of holding a cup of liquid is an extremely complicated one. Think about all the forces that must be balanced and maintained, and remember that the sensors used in this task have very odd temporal response, and that ALL of them eventually stop sending information about the forces on the fingertips if those forces are constant. Nevertheless, all of you are able to accomplish this task without much direct feedback control being applied - in fact it might be completely unconscious!




Smell:

The Sense of Smell

Smell depends on sensory receptors that respond to airborne chemicals. In humans, these chemoreceptors are located in theolfactory epithelium — a patch of tissue about the size of a postage stamp located high in the nasal cavity. The olfactory epithelium is made up of three kinds of cells:

  • sensory neurons each with a primary cilium

  • supporting cells between them

  • basal cells that divide regularly producing a fresh crop of sensory neurons to replace those that die (and providing an exception to the usual rule that neurons seldom are replaced).







How does your sense of smell work?

Your sense of smell—like your sense of taste—is part of your chemosensory system, or the chemical senses.
Your ability to smell comes from specialized sensory cells, called olfactory sensory neurons, which are found in a small patch of tissue high inside the nose. These cells connect directly to the brain. Each olfactory neuron has one odor receptor. Microscopic molecules released by substances around us—whether it’s coffee brewing or pine trees in a forest—stimulate these receptors. Once the neurons detect the molecules, they send messages to your brain, which identifies the smell. There are more smells in the environment than there are receptors, and any given molecule may stimulate a combination of receptors, creating a unique representation in the brain. These representations are registered by the brain as a particular smell.
Smells reach the olfactory sensory neurons through two pathways. The first pathway is through your nostrils. The second pathway is through a channel that connects the roof of the throat to the nose. Chewing food releases aromas that access the olfactory sensory neurons through the second channel. If the channel is blocked, such as when your nose is stuffed up by a cold or flu, odors can’t reach the sensory cells that are stimulated by smells. As a result, you lose much of your ability to enjoy a food’s flavor. In this way, your senses of smell and taste work closely together.
Without the olfactory sensory neurons, familiar flavors such as chocolate or oranges would be hard to distinguish. Without smell, foods tend to taste bland and have little or no flavor. Some people who go to the doctor because they think they’ve lost their sense of taste are surprised to learn that they’ve lost their sense of smell instead.
Your sense of smell is also influenced by something called the common chemical sense. This sense involves thousands of nerve endings, especially on the moist surfaces of the eyes, nose, mouth, and throat. These nerve endings help you sense irritating substances—such as the tear-inducing power of an onion—or the refreshing coolness of menthol.


  • Hyposmia [high-POSE-mee-ah] is a reduced ability to detect odors.

  • Anosmia [ah-NOSE-mee-ah] is the complete inability to detect odors. In rare cases, someone may be born without a sense of smell, a condition called congenital anosmia. 

  • Parosmia [pahr-OZE-mee-ah] is a change in the normal perception of odors, such as when the smell of something familiar is distorted, or when something that normally smells pleasant now smells foul. 

  • Phantosmia [fan-TOES-mee-ah] is the sensation of an odor that isn’t there.


What causes smell disorders?

Smell disorders have many causes, with some more obvious than others. Most people who develop a smell disorder have experienced a recent illness or injury. Common causes of smell disorders are:

  • Aging 

  • Sinus and other upper respiratory infections 

  • Smoking

  • Growths in the nasal cavities 

  • Head injury

  • Hormonal disturbances 

  • Dental problems 

  • Exposure to certain chemicals, such as insecticides and solvents 

  • Numerous medications, including some common antibiotics and antihistamines 

  • Radiation for treatment of head and neck cancers 

  • Conditions that affect the nervous system, such as Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s disease.


Some interesting facts:
   -   Humans possess around 12 million olfactory receptor cells that can detect approximately 10,000 odours.  Dogs, on the other hand, have anything from 100 to 200 million plus receptor cells, depending on the breed.  The bloodhound is thought to have more receptor cells than any other dog (as many as 300 million) and can detect 40,000 different odours!
 - The higher concentration of an odour, the stronger the signal sent by the receptor cells to the olfactory bulb.
 



BACKGROUND:
A tissue is a group of cells that have a similar shape and function.  Different types of tissues can be found in different organs.  In humans, there are four basic types of tissue:  epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissue.  There may be various sub-tissues within each of the primary tissues.  
Epithelial tissue covers the body surface and forms the lining for most internal cavities.  The major function of epithelial tissue includes protection, secretion, absorption, and filtration.  The skin is an organ made up of epithelial tissue which protects the body from dirt, dust, bacteria and other microbes that may be harmful.   Cells of the epithelial tissue have different shapes as shown on the student's worksheet.  Cells can be thin, flat to cubic to elongated.  
Connective tissue is the most abundant and the most widely distributed of the tissues.  Connective tissues perform a variety of functions including support and protection.  The following tissues are found in the human body, ordinary loose connective tissue, fat tissue, dense fibrous tissue, cartilage, bone, blood, and lymph, which are all considered connective tissue.  
There are three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.  Skeletal muscle is a voluntary type of muscle tissue that is used in the contraction of skeletal parts.  Smooth muscle is found in the walls of internal organs and blood vessels.  It is an involuntary type.  The cardiac muscle is found only in the walls of the heart and is involuntary in nature. 
Nerve tissue is composed of specialized cells which not only receive stimuli but also conduct impulses to and from all parts of the body.  Nerve cells or neurons are long and string-like.
In tissues the simplest combination is called a membrane, or a sheet of tissues which cover or line the body surface or divide organs into parts.  Examples include the mucous membrane which lines body cavities.  Tissues combine to form organs.  An organ is a part of the body which performs a definite function.  The final units of organization in the body are called systems.  A system is a group of organs each of which contributes its share to the function of the body as a whole.





Last edited by Callous on Wed Aug 10, 2016 5:41 pm; edited 3 times in total

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2 Re: Got hands 4 dayz bruh on Thu Jan 21, 2016 4:50 pm

Spinal Cord Basic information:
The spinal cord is a long, fragile tubelike structure that begins at the end of the brain stem and continues down almost to the bottom of the spine (spinal column). The spinal cord consists of nerves that carry incoming and outgoing messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It is also the center for reflexes, such as the knee jerk reflex (see Figure: Reflex Arc: A No-Brainer).

Like the brain, the spinal cord is covered by three layers of tissue (meninges). The spinal cord and meninges are contained in the spinal canal, which runs through the center of the spine. In most adults, the spine is composed of 26 individual back bones (vertebrae). Just as the skull protects the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord. The vertebrae are separated by disks made of cartilage, which act as cushions, reducing the forces generated by movements such as walking and jumping.



Spinal nerves: Emerging from the spinal cord between the vertebrae are 31 pairs of spinal nerves. Each nerve emerges in two short branches (roots):

The motor roots carry commands from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body, particularly to skeletal muscles.

The sensory roots carry information to the brain from other parts of the body.

Like the brain, the spinal cord consists of gray and white matter. The butterfly-shaped center of the cord consists of gray matter. The front “wings” (called horns) contain motor nerve cells, which transmit information from the brain or spinal cord to muscles, stimulating movement. The back horns contain sensory nerve cells, which transmit sensory information from other parts of the body through the spinal cord to the brain. The surrounding white matter contains columns of nerve fibers that carry sensory information to the brain from the rest of the body (ascending tracts) and columns that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles (descending tracts).

myelinated axon definition:

White matter is one of the two components of the central nervous system and consists mostly of glial cells and myelinated axons.

The white matter is white because of the fatty substance (myelin) that surrounds the nerve fibers. Myelin acts as an electrical insulation. It allows the messages to pass quickly from place to place.

Cerebral and spinal white matter do not contain dendrites, which can only be found in grey matter along with neural cell bodies, and shorter axons.

White matter modulates the distribution of action potentials, acting as a relay and coordinating communication between different brain regions.

White matter in the spinal cord functions as the "wiring"; primarily to carry information.

[*]glial cell

A type of cell, in the nervous system, that provides support for the neurons.

[*]white matter

A region of the central nervous system containing myelinated nerve fibers and no dendrites.

[*]myelin

A white, fatty material, composed of lipids and lipoproteins, that surrounds the axons of nerves.



White matter is one of the two components of the central nervous system. It consists mostly of glial cells and myelinated axons that transmit signals from one region of the cerebrum to another and between the cerebrum and lower brain centers. White matter tissue of the freshly cut brain appears pinkish white to the naked eye because myelin is composed largely of lipid tissue veined with capillaries.

White matter, long thought to be passive tissue, actively affects how the brain learns and dysfunctions. While grey matter is primarily associated with processing and cognition, white matter modulates the distribution of action potentials, acting as a relay and coordinating communication between different brain regions.

White matter is composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell processes (or axons), which connect various grey matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other and carry nerve impulses between neurons. Myelin acts as an insulator, increasing the speed of transmission of all nerve signals.


Myelin is made by different cell types, and varies in chemical composition and configuration, but performs the same insulating function. Myelinated axons are white in appearance, hence the "white matter" of the brain. Myelin helps to insulate the axons from electrically charged atoms and molecules 


Demyelination[edit]





Further information: Demyelinating disease
Demyelination is the loss of the myelin sheath insulating the nerves, and is the hallmark of some neurodegenerative autoimmunediseases, including multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, transverse myelitis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, central pontine myelinosis, inherited demyelinating diseases such as leukodystrophy, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Sufferers of pernicious anaemia can also suffer nerve damage if the condition is not diagnosed quickly. Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord secondary to pernicious anaemia can lead to slight peripheral nerve damage to severe damage to the central nervous system, affecting speech, balance, and cognitive awareness. When myelin degrades, conduction of signals along the nerve can be impaired or lost, and the nerve eventually withers.[clarification needed] A more serious case of myelin deterioration is called Canavan Disease.
The immune system may play a role in demyelination associated with such diseases, including inflammation causing demyelination by overproduction of cytokines via upregulation of tumor necrosis factor[8] or interferon.

Symptoms[edit]





Demyelination results in diverse symptoms determined by the functions of the affected neurons. It disrupts signals between the brain and other parts of the body; symptoms differ from patient to patient, and have different presentations upon clinical observation and in laboratory studies.
Typical symptoms include:

  • blurriness in the central visual field that affects only one eye, may be accompanied by pain upon eye movement

  • double vision

  • loss of vision/hearing

  • odd sensation in legs, arms, chest, or face, such as tingling or numbness (neuropathy)

  • weakness of arms or legs

  • cognitive disruption, including speech impairment and memory loss

  • heat sensitivity (symptoms worsen or reappear upon exposure to heat, such as a hot shower)

  • loss of dexterity

  • difficulty coordinating movement or balance disorder

  • difficulty controlling bowel movements or urination

  • fatigue

  • tinnitus




White matter is the tissue through which messages pass between different areas of gray matter within the nervous system. Using a computer network as an analogy, the gray matter can be thought of as the actual computers themselves, whereas the white matter represents the network cables connecting the computers together. The white matter is white because of the fatty substance (myelin) that surrounds the nerve fibers (axons). This myelin is found in almost all long nerve fibers and acts as an electrical insulation. This is important because it allows the messages to pass quickly from place to place.
White matter is composed of bundles of myelinated nerve cell processes (or axons), which connect various grey matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other and carry nerve impulses between neurons. Myelin acts as an insulator, increasing the speed of transmission of all nerve signals.



Grey matter contains most of the brain's neuronal cell bodies. The grey matter includes regions of the brain involved in muscle control, and sensory perception such as seeing and hearing, memory, emotions, speech, decision making, and self-control.



Last edited by Callous on Thu Aug 11, 2016 6:46 pm; edited 5 times in total

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3 Devil's Compass on Tue Jan 26, 2016 4:47 pm

Devil's Compass | 磁石

OVERVIEW

Devil's compass, a forbidden technique within the Hiragi Clan, the skill was founded by Yokoshima Hiragi, the father of the cursed clan. Devil's Compass is manifested from three things, emptiness, greed, or hate; the stronger the motivation, or emotion is, Devil's Compass can thrive at an alarming rate. The passive feature of the technique is that it allows the user to produce a limpid yin energy that constructs its self into a sphere that anyone, and anything can pass through. Being within the sphere one will feel heat beating down on their body and into the pores of the skin causing them to sweat like pigs. The longer the victim stays within the heat, the more exhausted they become, and pass out. Even if the opponent  has a heat resistant trait, it won't matter because the true passive ability of Devil's Compass is devouring energy/stamina. This fuels the practitioner making them seem demon like, boosting strength, speed, aura and endurance to incredible levels. Based on the users vehemence, they can increase the output of devil's compass which makes the aura pressure within the sphere heavier. This causes anything passing through it to slow down, and even fall based on the aura's weight, and ultimately losing whatever speed, and power it originally had. Devil's compass alerts the practitioner of anything coming into his, or her range, and crossing through it with ease. The skill is so great, one can keep their eyes closed as they battle.  



Devil's Compass Technique(s) :

Name: Devil's Compass Art: Bend: Hizumi | 歪み
Style: Destroyer
Type: Offensive Defensive
Range: Short - Mid
Detailed Range: Hizumi is a feature that relies on the range of DC
Description: Hizumi is a bending/distortion art, and probably one of the most brutal techniques in the Destroy Arts. The user is capable bending an opponent's fingers, arms, toes, and legs. All the bones cannot be broken in one turn of the technique, only one bone can be broken at a time. Many long range skills can be distorted as well, and launched back to the opponent, or simply destroyed by distorting it's energy.

Pros


  • Can reduce the opponent's speed.
  • Can induce fear.
  • Can disrupt a lot of attacks.



Cons

  • Can only break, or fracture fingers, toes, legs, and arms.
  • Can only break a bone a time, meaning it has to be done in separate posts.
  • Has a cool down time of 5 posts.
  • Can only be done within the range of DC



Devil's Compass Technique 2 :

Name: Devil's Compass Art: Catastrophe: Wazawai | 災い
Style: Destroyer
Type: Offensive Defensive
Range: Short - Mid
Detailed Range: Wazawai can expand to a five meter radius.
Description: Catastrophe has the capabilities of dragging opponents closer towards the user as long as they are within Devil Compass's range; as they are railed in at rapid speed, the practitioner has the option of spinning the opponent around, and rotating them within the sphere. The victim can even be smashed into the ground. Not only does this work on human's, it can defend against a large arsenal of techniques performed by enemies.  

Pros


  • Able to make the enemy dizzy.
  • Can render plenty of their moves useless.
  • Can disrupt a lot of attacks.



Cons

  • Can be fought against if the user has the spiritual energy and competent knowledge in role-play to do so.
  • This means catastrophe can be slowed down, or completely stopped.

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4 Raijin no hyoji on Mon Feb 01, 2016 1:26 am

Raijin no hyōji | 雷神の表示


-OVERVIEW-

Raijin no hyōji (Lit: Raijin's View) Is an uncommon eye mastery with electricity being a supplement for the user; since the brain is already a place of electricity due to the neurons attached to it, the practitioner is capable of charging the electricity in their brain, so the most important thing to focus on is a specific region of the central nervous system which is the cranial. Before the manipulated electricity is stationed to the retina for modified visual perception, the user is to place focus on their parietal lobe which has a function of dealing with the perception of stimuli and then the occipital lobe which has the mechanics for visual processing. With such capacity to control the brain and slightly rework its normal pace, the user can alter the speed in how things are receipted. This means the practitioner is able to break the things they see into frames, a true master is able to comprehend almost any speed level shown by an enemy no matter how rapid movement may be. The practitioner can closely study every muscle movement performed by adversaries and even study how attacks work seeing as they have the time to do so. This is not the only reason why the technique is formidable against an opponent. The eye prowess is capable of looking past one's clothing, and muscles until it can track the neurons activity in the opponent's body. Once this is done, the user can read the language being traversed between each neuron in the opponent's body by looking at the electric currents. This ultimately gives them the ability to read minds in a sense, because their brain will signal everything their about to do. This is the true nature of Raijin's View   

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5 Re: Got hands 4 dayz bruh on Sun Aug 14, 2016 4:16 am

Most electric charge is carried by the electrons and protons within an atom. Electrons are said to carry negative charge, while protons are said to carry positive charge, although these labels are completely arbitrary (more on that later). Protons and electrons attract each other, the archetype of the cliché "opposites attract," according to the University of Georgia’s website, HyperPhysics. Conversely, two protons repel each other, as do two electrons.

Protons and electrons create electric fields, which exert a force called the Coulomb force, which radiates outward in all directions. According to Serif Uran, a professor of physics at Pittsburg State University, the electric field radiates outward from a charged particle similarly to how light radiates outward from a light bulb. Just as with the brightness of the light, the strength of the electric field decreases as the square of the distance from the source (1/r2). If you move twice as far away, the strength of the field decreases to one-fourth, and if you move three times as far away, the field decreases to one-ninth.

Because protons are generally confined to the nuclei imbedded inside atoms, they are not nearly as free to move as are electrons. Therefore, when we talk about electric charge, we nearly always mean a surplus or deficit of electrons. When an imbalance of charges exists, and electrons are able to flow, an electric current is created. 




-Atoms: Take anything apart and you'll find something smaller inside. There are engines inside cars, pips inside apples, hearts and lungs inside people, and stuffing inside teddy bears. But what happens if you keep going? If you keep taking things apart, you'll eventually, find that all matter (all the "stuff" that surrounds us) is made from different types of atoms. Living things, for example, are mostly made from the atoms carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These are just three of over 100chemical elements that scientists have discovered. Other elements include metals such as coppertiniron and gold, and gases like hydrogen and helium. You can make virtually anything you can think of by joining atoms of different elements together like tiny LEGO® blocks.


An atom is the smallest possible amount of a chemical element—so an atom of gold is the smallest amount of gold you can possibly have. By small, I really do mean absolutely, nanoscopically tiny: a single atom is about 100,000 times thinner than a human hair, so you have absolutely no chance of ever seeing one unless you have an incredibly powerful electron microscope. In ancient times, people thought atoms were the smallest possible things in the world. In fact, the word atom comes from a Greek word meaning something that cannot be split up any further. Today, we know this isn't true. In theory, if you had a knife small and sharp enough, you could chop an atom of gold into bits and you'd find smaller things inside. But then you'd no longer have the gold: you'd just have the bits. All atoms are made from the same bits, which are calledsubatomic particles ("sub" means smaller than and these are particles smaller than atoms). So if you chopped up an atom of iron, and put the bits into a pile, and then chopped up an atom of gold, and put those bits into a second pile, you'd have two piles of very similar bits—but there'd be no iron or gold left.



Spoiler:
Most atoms have three different subatomic particles inside them: protonsneutrons, and electrons. The protons and neutrons are packed together into the center of the atom (which is called the nucleus) and the electrons, which are very much smaller, whizz around the outside. When people draw pictures of atoms, they show the electrons like satellites spinning round the Earth in orbits. In fact, electrons move so quickly that we never know exactly where they are from one moment to the next. Imagine them as super-fast racing cars moving so incredibly quickly that they turn into blurry clouds—they almost seem to be everywhere at once. That's why you'll see some books drawing electrons inside fuzzy areas called orbitals.

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